RUSSIAN ART OF LATTER 17TH – EARLY 20TH CENTURIES
The exposition of icons and copper casting the XV I of - of the XIX centuries continued secular works of art, showing the earliest specimens parsuna letters and portraits of Peter's time. The history of the art collections of the museum is typical of many Russian museums that have arisen in the post-revolutionary period, and is closely linked with the sometimes tragic pages of history of the country. Founded in 1920 as a closed monastery buildings, the museum almost immediately became the largest art center near Moscow. At the root of the construction of the museum was its first director - Nathan A. Schneersohn (1881 -1945), directly involved in the work of the commission on the nationalization of manors and private collections. In 1920 NA Schneerson launched active work on inspection of estates and churches in the western part of the Moscow province. The mandate given to Nathan Alexandrovich, gave him the right to export art collections, which threatened to death on the ground, in a museum.
The Great Patriotic War caused great damage to the architectural ensemble and the funds of the museum. Only a small part of the exhibits had to be evacuated to Alma-Ata. Restoration and replenishment of funds have become important areas of activity of the museum in the postwar period. Particularly active this work was conducted since the mid-1970s, when the director of VF Nizhegorodova, who came to the leadership of the museum in 1973, was formed by the research team of MSU graduates: art critics and historians. It is no exaggeration to say that these years were a time of revival and prosperity of the museum. In an effort to make up for lost value during the war, followed by collectors of genre and thematic structure of the collection, which occurred earlier. In the pre-war collection of Russian art of the XVIII -XIX centuries was the main genre of portrait and landscape.
The eighteenth century is rightly considered the century portrait. The heyday of the portrait genre has been going to Peter's time. In an era of profound change and the formation of a secular culture of active, activity identity becomes the main object of art. The ideals of the new era are embodied not only in men but also in women's images, a clear example of this is one of the earliest portraits in the meeting: "(?) Portrait of Duchess Maria Cantemir Smaragd (?)."
With the problems of art of the middle of the XVIII century due work of the famous Russian painter Alexei Petrovich Antropov. To this end, the temporary nature of some return to the Russian past, parsuna typical example of this - "Portrait of Princess Sophia" Antropov brush.
Period of brilliant flowering of portraiture in Russia was the second half of the XVIII century. Russian portrait art of this time developed in two main directions: in the genre ceremonial and chamber portraits. The highest achievements in the development of the genre of intimate portraits of Russian art II-nd half of the XVIII century, associated with the name FS Rokotoff. Brushes Fedor Rokotov belongs to the "Portrait of Marguerite Frantsevna Zotova".
At the same time widespread in Russia received a sculptural portrait. Russian society appears in the works of one of the best masters of sculptural portrait of Fyodor Ivanovich Shubin. The accuracy and versatility of performance, diversity and richness of composite solutions give busts Shubin exceptional expressiveness. The museum collection is kept a marble bust AM Golitsyn work Shubin and two busts sculptor Jacob Zemelgaka Ivanovich, who worked in the studio of Shubin and tested its impact on their creativity.
A later chapter in the history of Russian art is a portrait of Sergei Nikolaevich Dolgoruky Prince (1802) by the famous painter VL Borovikovsky.
An integral part of Russian artistic culture of the XVIII - XIX centuries is the work of foreign artists who worked in Russia, the so-called "Rossika". Swedish painter Alexander Roslin, who lived in Russia in 1775 - 1777 years, is attributed to a series of portraits from the collection. The best of them - Portrait Zakhar Chernyshev. Classical palace ceremonial portrait in the collection of the museum is the "Portrait of Princess MF Baryatinskaya with daughter Olga "(1817). The portrait was made by the French artist Robert Lefebvre, when Maria Fyodorovna, nee Countess Keller, lived in Paris with her husband, a diplomat Ivan Ivanovich Baryatinsky.
Manor portraits naturally existed among the surrounding their furniture and the products that are now called artware. Museum exhibit also decorates furniture XVIII and XIX centuries and the best examples from the collection of Russian porcelain and glass.
the first half of the XIX century art reflects different directions. With the romantic mood, essential for the Russian culture of the first quarter of the XIX century, is associated portrait SM Golitsyn outstanding painter brushes VA Tropinin, "Portrait of an Unknown" Nicholas Brush Argunova demonstrates outlined in these years the process of democratization of art, which is expressed in expanding the social circle portrayed in the growing interest of artists to the transfer of the private life of a person.
A small section of landscape painting makes it possible to trace the individual examples, almost all stages of the development of the genre. Romantic mood, in general characteristic of creativity Maxim Vorobiev, felt in his "Italian Landscape". Understanding how Vorobyov landscape works, the sublime, and had an impact on his illustrious disciple of the outstanding Russian seascape IK Aivazovsky. Poetics of the everyday according to a realistic landscapes AK Savrasov. The museum contains the latest product master, written at the end of 1880 early 1890's.
Appeal to the bright side of life, the so-called "gratifying" theme is becoming a feature of art of the turn of the XIX - the XX-th centuries. Extraordinary expressiveness different "Portrait IF Tyumeneva with his wife "AP Ryabushkina. Bright upbeat mood emanates from the entire structure of the painting, written in quick impressionistic style. Brilliant specimen of art associated with the style of Art Nouveau, is the "Portrait of AB Vysotsky - Gotz 'work LO Pasternak.